In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. The United States recognizes collective agreements   Workers are not required to join a union in a specific workplace. Nevertheless, most industries, with an average union training of 70%, are subject to a collective agreement. An agreement does not prohibit higher wages and better benefits, but sets a legal minimum, much like a minimum wage. In addition, an agreement on national income policy is often, but not always, reached, bringing together all trade unions, employers` organisations and the Finnish government.  The Act is now contained in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 s.179, which provides that collective agreements are definitively considered non-binding in the United Kingdom. This presumption can be rebutted if the agreement is written and includes an express provision that it should be legally enforceable. Under common law, Ford v.
A.U.E.F. , , the courts found once that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s office), provided in 1971 that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause indicated otherwise. Following the fall of the Heath government, the law was struck down to reflect the tradition of the British labour relations policy of legal abstention from labour disputes. The Swedish Association of Industrialists is bound by thirteen collective agreements. Seven of them are employment contracts. The Industrial Workers` Union Metall is the opponent in five agreements, Pappers (The Swedish Paper Workers Union), GS (Swedish Union of Forestry Workers, Wood and Graphic Designers) in one and SEKO (Union of Service and Communication Employees) in two. The Swedish Association of Industrialists is also bound by four collective agreements for employees. The counterparties to this agreement are the employee unions Ledarna (the Swedish organisation for managers), Unionen and Sveriges Ingenjurer (Swedish Federation of Graduate Engineers). In addition, the Swedish Association of Industrial Employers` Organisations is bound by a collective agreement that includes both blue-collar and white-collar counterparties that exist in the same agreement with Pappers (The Swedish Paper Workers Union) as a worker`s equivalent. Collective agreements are signed for certain periods, usually two to four years. A collective agreement is mandatory for both the employers` organization and its members, the union and its members, on the other.
In addition, a collective agreement is generally also in practice, if not theoretically, for individual non-unionized workers and unionized workers who belong to a union other than the union that are part of the collective agreement, provided that (i) the worker works with collective agreement tasks and (ii) that the union to which the worker is affiliated is not bound by another collective agreement with the employer. In June 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada examined in detail the reasons for respecting collective bargaining as a human right. In the case of the Facilities Subsector Bargaining Association/British Columbia, the Court made the following observations: British law reflects the historical adversarial nature of labour relations in the United Kingdom.