If, in a bilateral agreement, the two parties are two countries bound by an international agreement, they are generally referred to as “state parties”.  The nature of an agreement between two contracting states is governed by the provisions of the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law. An agreement between a state or organization and an international organization is governed by the rules of the Vienna Convention on the law of treaties between states and international organizations or between international organizations.  If a contract does not contain provisions for other agreements or measures, only the text of the treaty is legally binding. In general, an amendment to the Treaty only commits the States that have ratified it and the agreements reached at review conferences, summits or meetings of the States Parties are not legally binding. The Charter of the United Nations is an example of a treaty that contains provisions for other binding agreements. By signing and ratifying the Charter, countries have agreed to be legally bound by resolutions adopted by UN bodies such as the General Assembly and the Security Council. Therefore, UN resolutions are legally binding on UN member states and no signature or ratification is required. Under international law, a treaty is a legally binding agreement between states (countries). A treaty can be called a convention, protocol, pact, agreement, etc. It is the content of the agreement, not its name, that makes it a treaty. Thus, the Geneva Protocol and the Biological Weapons Convention are the two treaties, although neither treaty in its name. Under U.S.
law, a treaty is a legally binding agreement between countries that requires ratification and “consultation and approval” of the Senate. All other agreements (internationally treated) are called executive agreements, but are nevertheless legally binding on the United States under international law. IpPC is a contract to prevent the introduction and spread of pests to plants and plant products and currently has 177 government recipients. IPPC has developed plant health guidelines and serves as a reporting centre and source of information. Seven regional plant protection organizations have been established under the aegis of ipPC. For example, the North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) consists of the United States, Canada and Mexico, which participate through APHIS, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and the Plant Health Directorate. The European and Mediterranean Organization for the Protection of Plants (EPPO) is an intergovernmental organisation that is also responsible, within the framework of the IPPC, for plant health cooperation between 50 countries in the European and Mediterranean region.