There are provisions that are recorded in collective agreements that are not regulated by legislation. These issues include travel expenses, vacation bonuses, extra days off (called “pekkasvapaat”) or sick or maternity leave benefits. Many employment contracts are partly or entirely made up of conditions obtained collectively through bargaining with a union. Such collective agreements may be incorporated into the employment contract by explicit registration or sub-treated by law. As soon as a union obtains express permission from its members to act on their behalf as an agent, any agreement with the employer is included in each employment contract. For example, in the context of the 1996 ERDF, collective agreements are provided that replace the legal provisions on the right to unfair termination or the right to legal compensation. If the Secretary of State accepts the collective agreement, the terms negotiated between the union and the employers will replace the conditions created and provided for by law. Income gaps by level of education reflect monetary incentives that offer someone to invest in education. Post-education income gaps are the intersection of supply and demand curves for educated workers. The relative income differences between countries reflect a number of factors.
B the demand for skills in the labour market, minimum wage legislation, the strength of trade unions, collective agreements, the supply of workers with different levels of education, the work experience of workers with a high and low level of training, the distribution of employment between occupations and the relative impact of part-time and seasonal work (OECD) , 2007). Employers seem less fond of unionism in the workplace. This has often led to an agreement with industry unions on uniform rules for the representation of workers at the enterprise level, as in Italy. In some countries, such as the United States, the representation of unitary unions is introduced by legal procedure. In other countries, trade unionism is merged into the workplace to become institutions of legal participation, which gives the works councils, elected by the staff as a whole, rights of information, consultation and codecision, while ensuring that the management of the company has a single equivalent with which to negotiate.